Pubblichiamo, in questa pagina, acronimi e terminologia del mondo dello shipping. Otim srl ha effettuato ricerche esaustive nell’intento di fornire informazioni precise e accurate.
Otim srl non si assume nessuna responsabilità sull’errato utilizzo del materiale proposto.

American Terms (Marine Insurance) A term used to differentiate between the conditions of American Policies from those of other nations, principally England.

Association of British Chambers of Commerce

ABI - Automated Brokerage Interface
Is a system available to U.S. Customs Brokers with the computer capabilities and customs certification to transmit and exchange customs entries and other information, facilitating prompt release of imported cargo.

Association of British Insurers

A time draft (or bill of exchange) which the drawee has accepted and is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity. Drawee's act in receiving a draft and thus entering into the obligation to pay its value at maturity. An agreement to purchase goods under specified terms.

Ad Valorem ("according to the value")
A fixed percentage of the value of goods that is used to calculate customs duties and taxes.

Add Hoc Charter
A one-off charter operated at the necessity of an airline or charterer.

Admirality Court
Is a court having jurisdiction over maritime questions pertaining to ocean transport, including contracts, charters, collisions, and cargo damages.

Advance Against Documents
Load made on the security of the documents covering the shipment.

Advising Bank
A bank that receives a letter of credit from an issuing bank, verifies its authenticity, and forwards the original letter of credit to the exporter without obligation to pay.

Advisory Capacity
A term indicating that a shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definite decisions or adjustment without the approval of the group or individual represented.

Advance freight (i.e. prior to shipment)

Is a company that controls, or is controlled by another company, or is one of two or more commonly controlled companies.

The hiring of a ship in whole or in part

At or towards the stern or rear of a ship

Agency Agreement
The steamship line appoints the steamship agent and defines the specific duties and areas of responsibility of that agent.

Air Cargo Agent
Is a type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo and acts for airlines that pay him a fee (usually 5%). He is registered with the International Air Transport Association, IATA (See also Air Freight Forwarder; Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder).

Air Freight Forwarder
Is a type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. He usually consolidates the air shipments of various exporters, charging them for actual weight and deriving his profit by paying the airline the lower consolidated rate. He issues his own air waybills to the exporters, is licensed by the CAB (Civil Aeronautics Board) and has the status of an indirect air carrier (See also Air Cargo Agent, Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder.)

Air Waybill
A bill of landing that covers both international and domestic flights transporting goods to a specified destination. This is a non-negotiable documents of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions.

An agreement by a steamship line to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer, who then becomes liable for payment even though he is later unable to make the shipment.

International Air Transport Association, IATA, (French, German).

All Risk Insurance
Is a clause included in marine insurance policies to cover loss and damage from external causes, such as fire, collision, pilferage, etc. but not against innate flaws in the goods, such as decay, germination, nor against faulty packaging, improper packing/ loading or loss of market, nor against war, strikes, riots and civil commotions (See Marine Insurance)

All-Risk Clause
Is an insurance provision that all loss or damage to goods is insured except that of inherent vice (self caused). (See All Risk Insurance).

A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods to be delivered "alongside" are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship's tackle so that they can be loaded abroad the ship.

Advice note

Arrival notification form

Additional premium

Arbitration Clause
Is a standard clause to be included in the contracts of exporters and importers, as suggested by the American Arbitration Association. It states that any controversy or claim will be settled by arbitration in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association.

Assignment of Proceeds
A stipulation within a letter of credit in which some or all of the proceeds are assigned from the original beneficiary to one or more additional beneficiaries.

The transfer of the rights, duties, responsibilities and/or benefits of an agreement, contract, or financial instrument to third party.

Accorde Transports Perissable, (European Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs)

Automated Brokerage Interface (ABI)
An electronic system allowing customhouse brokers and importers to interface via computer with the US Customs Service for transmitting entry and entry summary data on imported merchandise.

Automated Commercial System (ACS)
The electronic system of the US Customs Service, encompassing a variety of industry sectors, that permits on-line access to information in selected areas.

Automated Manifest System (AMS)
The electronic system allowing a manifest inventory to be transmitted to the US Customs Service data center by carrier, port authority or service center computers.

Banker's Draft

Bill of Exchange

Bill of Sale

British Airports Authority

Baltic Air Charter Association

Banker's Automated Clearingwee System

Bunker adjustment factor: A fuel surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight rate reflecting the movement in the market price for bunkers.

Balance of Trade
The difference bet a country's total imports and exports; if exports exceed imports, favorable balance of trade exists, if not, a trade deficit is said to exist.

Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship at sea.

Trade in which merchandise is exchanged directly for other merchandise without use of money. Barter is an important means of trade with countries using currency that is not readily convertible.

Banker's Cover Note

British Exporters Association

The maximum breadth of a ship.

Belly Cargo
Freight accommodation below the main deck.

A firm or person on whom a letter of credit has been drawn. The beneficiary is usually the seller or exporter.

Bermuda Agreement
An agreement concluded in 1946 between the U.K. and the U.S., designed to regulate future international air traffic. Most governments accept its principles and follow it inter alia by limiting traffic rights on international routes to one or two carriers.

Place alongside a quay where a ship loads or discharges cargo.

Berth Liner Service
Is a regular scheduled steamship line with regular published schedules port of call ) from and to defined trade areas.

Berth or Liner Terms
Is an expression covering assessment of ocean freight rates generally implying that loading and discharging expenses will be for ship owner's account, and usually apply from the end of ship's tackle in port of loading to the end of ship's tackle in port of discharge.

Is the place beside a pier, quay or wharf where a vessel can be loaded or discharged.

British International Freight Association

Bill of Entry
A shipper's detailed statement for Customs purposes of the nature and value of goods in a consignment.

Bill of Exchange (B/E)
Legally defined as "an unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to or to the order of a specified person, or to bearer". It is the most general method of obtaining payment for goods shipped abroad.

Bill of Lading
A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. Usually prepared by the shipper on forms issued by the carrier, it serves as a document of title, contract of carriage, and a receipt for goods. Also see Air Waybill and Ocean Bill of Lading.

This is a piece of equipment equivalent to the bottom of a container without sides. Often used for stacking parcels of sawn timber and bags of cocoa. Otherwise known as a flat or pontoon

Bonded Warehouse
A warehouse storage area or manufacturing facility in which imported goods may be stored or processed without payment of customs duties.

British Overseas Trade Board

Bottle screws, container shoes, twist locks, chains and chain tensioners
All pieces of lashing equipment for securing cargo (twist locks and container shoes are used only on containers, pontoons and stackmasters).

A boule is a log that has been sliced through into at least 12 pieces. The bark is left intact.

Another term for general cargo, i.e. non unitised cargoes.

Brussels Tariff Nomenclature Number (BTN)
The customs tariff number used by most European nations. The United States does not use the BTN, but a similar system known as the Harmonize Tariff Schedule.

British Shippers Council

British Standards Institution

British Standard Specification

Name given for vessel's fuel and diesel oil supplies (originates from coal bunkers).

Bureau Veritas.

Dead Freight

Deadweight (tons of 2,240 lbs.)

Deadweight for cargo

Delivery order

Delivered At Frontier - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of five 'D' terms.

Dangerous Goods
Articles or substance capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when being transported.

Dangerous articles tariff.

Date Draft
Draft that matures in a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of Acceptance. See Draft.

Department of Civil Aviation. Commonly used term to denote the government department of any foreign country that is responsible for aviation regulation and granting traffic rights.

Delivered duty paid. Also known as "free domicile."

Delivered duty unpaid. Reflects the emergence of "door-to-door" intermodal or courier contracts or carriage where only the destination customs duty and taxes (if any) are paid by consignee.

Dead Freight
Is freight charges paid by the charterer of vessel for the contracted space, which is left partially unoccupied.

Dead Leg
Is a sector flown without payload.

Deck Cargo
Is cargo carried on deck rather than stowed under deck. On deck carriage is required for certain commodities, such as explosives.

Deferred Payment Credit
Type of letter of credit providing for payment some time after presentation of shipping documents by exporter.

Deferred Rebate
The return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier or a conference shipper in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier or conference over a specified period of time (usually 6 months). Payment of the rate is deferred for a further similar period, during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier or conference. The shipper thus earns a further rebate which will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier of conference. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier or conference. Although, the deferred rebate system is illegal in U.S. foreign commerce, it generally is accepted in the ocean trade between foreign countries.

A penalty for exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal. Also a charge for undue detention of transportation equipment or carriers in port while loading or unloading.

Density means pounds per cubic foot. The cubage of loose articles or pieces, or packaged articles of a rectangular, elliptical or square shape on one plane shall be determined by multiplying the greatest straight line dimensions of length, width and depth in inches, including all projections, and dividing the total by 1728 (to obtain cubic feet). The density is the weight of the article divided by the cubic feet thus obtained.

Delivered Ex Quay (Duty Paid) - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of five 'D' terms.

Delivered Ex Ship - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of five 'D' terms.

Destination Control Statement
Any of various statements that the U.S. government requires to be displayed on export shipments and that specify the destination for which export of the shipment has been authorized.

Dangerous Goods Note

Dangerous Goods Requirement.

Dim Weight
(Dimensionalized Weight) Determined by calculating length x width x height and dividing by 166. Charged when actual weight is less than the dim. weight.

Sums paid out by a ship's agent at a port on behalf of the owner.

Removing goods from a ship.

Dock Receipt
When cargo is delivered to a steamship company at the pier, the receiving clerk issues a dock receipt.

Documents Against Acceptance (D/A)
Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title goods should be delivered to the buyer (or drawee) only upon the buyer's acceptance of the attached draft.

Department of Transportation

Draft (or Bill of Exchange)
An unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the Drawee to pay a specified amount to a named Drawer at a fixed or determinable future date.

Widely used alternative spelling of draught. Depth to which a ship is immersed in the water. This depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.

A U.S. customs law that permits an American exporter to recover duties paid on imported foreign raw materials or components included in products that are subsequently exported out of the United States.

The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount to the drawer.

Dry Lease
The rental of a "clean" aircraft without crew, ground staff or supporting equipment.

Dry Van
A basic 20/40ft container.

The acronym meaning "double stack train" service, which is the transport rail between two points of a trainload of containers with two containers, one on top of the other, per chassis.

Department of Trade and Industry

Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide a space in which the tynes of a forklift truck may be inserted.

Deadweight: Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.

Signifies that the quoted price applies only at the indicated point of origin (e.g. "price ex factory" means that the quoted price is for the goods available at the factory gate of the seller).

Except as otherwise noted.

Export after repair

Economic Commission for Europe

port Consignment Identifier

Economic and Financial Affairs Council (EC)

Export Cargo Packing Declaration

Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport, from the UN-backed electronic data interchange standards body, to create electronic versions of common business documents that will work on a global scale. One digital document under consideration, the International Forwarding and Transport Message will do the jobs of six different electronic messages currently in use.

European Free Trade Association

Empty Leg
Results from an aircraft primarily chartered outbound having cargo capacity inbound or vice versa. A cheap form of airfreight.

Person to whom a bill of exchange is transferred by the endorsement of a third party.

Endorsement in Blank
Commonly used on a bank check, an endorsement in blank is an endorsement to the bearer. It contains only the name of the endorser and specifies no particular payee. Also, a common means of endorsing bills of lading dawn to the order of the shipper. The bills are endorsed "For..." (see Bill of Lading, Order).

One who endorses a bill, and thereby accepts liability for it.

Economic Recovery Programme for the cocoa industry in Ghana launched in 1983

Estimated Time of Arrival.

Estimated Time of Departure.

Estimated Time of Sailing

European Union

U.S. dollars on deposit outside of the United States to include dollars on deposit at foreign branches of U.S. banks, and dollars on deposit with foreign banks.

Ex. B.L.
Exchange bill of lading.

Export Broker
The individual who brings together buyer and seller for a fee, eventually withdrawing from any transaction.

Export Declaration
A form to be completed by the exporter or their authorized agent and filed in triplicate by a carrier with the United State Collector of customs at the point of exit. It serves a twofold purpose:
Primarily, it is used by the U.S. Bureau of Census for the compilation of export statistics on United States foreign trade (for this reason an export declaration is required for practically all shipments from the United States to foreign countries and the United States possessions, except for mail shipments of small value, or for those of a non commercial character).
The declaration also serves as an export control document because it must be presented, together with the export license, to the United States Customs at the port of export. If the goods may be exported under general export license, this fact must be stated on the export declaration.

Export License
A document secured from a government, authorizing an exporter to export a specific quantity of a particular commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required if a government has place embargoes or other restrictions upon exports. See General Export License.

Export Trading Company
A corporation or other business unit organized and operated primarily for the purpose of exporting goods and services, or of providing export related services to other companies.

Premium-rated service for urgent deliveries.

Ex Works - One of the thirteen Incoterms.

Freight and demurrage.

Full container load, full car load.

Free of capture and seizure.

Free of capture, seizure, riots and civil commotions.

Free in bunkers; free into barge.

Free of damage

Free of Particular Average (Marine Insurance Term). A term used in marine insurance policies to indicate that while the underwriter is unwilling to assume liability for ordinary partial losses due to the peculiar qualities of the particular article or to its form of package, he is willing to bear partial losses, the direct result of stranding, sinking, burning, collision, or other named peril

F.P.A.A.C. F.p.a. (A.C.)
Free of Particular Average, American Conditions- (Marine Insurance Term). The American form of clause commonly used, as distinguished from that used by the English underwriters. Under the American clause the underwriter does not assume responsibility for partial losses unless caused by stranding, sinking, burning or collision with another vessel whereas under the English clause, the underwriter assumes responsibility for partial losses if the vessel be stranded, sunk, burnt or in collision even though such an event did not actually cause the damage suffered by the goods. Conditions (See F.P.A.A.C.).

Freight All Kinds - uniform airline charging scale applying to a number of commodities; as opposed to SCR (Specific Commodity Rate) applying to one commodity only.

FAS (free alongside ship)
Seller is responsible for inland freight costs until goods are located alongside the vessel/aircraft for loading. Buyer is responsible for loading costs, ocean /air freight and marine/air insurance.

(Nautical) Conversion equivalents: 6 feet; 1.83 meters.

Free buyers yard: As FOT but also includes delivery to buyer's premises.

Free Carrier - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of three 'F' terms.

Forty foot equivalent

International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations.

Fifth Freedom Flight
Where cargo is carried by an airline between two countries in neither of which it is based.

Free in, liner out: Seafreight which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays discharge costs.

Free in and out: Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but not loading and discharging costs.

Free in and out and stowed: As FIO but includes stowage costs.

Free in and out and trimmed: As above but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling out of bulk cargoes.

First of Exchange
First or principal copy of a bill of exchange to be presented and honoured the other copies then being automatically cancelled.

eration of International Traders

Flag Carrier
An airline of one national registry whose government gives it partial or total monopoly over international routes.

This is a piece of equipment equivalent to the bottom of a container without sides. Often used for stacking parcels of sawn timber and bags of cocoa. Otherwise known as a pontoon or bolster.

FOB (free on board)
Seller is responsible for inland freight and all other costs until the cargo has been loaded on the vessel/aircraft. Buyer is responsible for ocean/air freight and marine/air insurance.

An article folded in such a manner as to reduce its bulk 33 1/3% from its normal shipping cubage when not folded.

Force Majeure
The title of a standard clause found in marine contracts exempting the parties for nonfulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods or war.

Foreign Bill
A bill of exchange drawn on an acceptor overseas.

Foreign Trade Zone Entry
A form declaring goods which are brought duty free into a Foreign Trade Zone for further processing or storage and subsequent exportation.

Foreign Trade Zone
A free port in the United Stated divorced from Customs authority but under Federal control. Merchandise, except that which is prohibited, may be stored in the zone without being subjected to the United States tariff regulation. Also called Free Trade Zone.

Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder
An independent business that dispatches shipments for exporters for a fee. The firm may ship by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize. Usually it handles all the services connected with an export shipment; preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehouse, pier delivery and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client. The U.S. forwarder is licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission for ocean shipments.

Free on truck: Includes all loading, discharging and seafreight costs. Also includes costs of placing goods onto trucks at the quay.

Foul Bill of Landing
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received.

Forward Rate Agreement

Free Alongside
Quoted price includes the cost of delivering the goods alongside a designated vessel.

Free discharge
Free out: Includes loading costs and seafreight only.

Free In (F.I.)
Cost of loading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free In and Out (F.I.O.)
Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free of Capture and Seizure (F.C.& S.)
An insurance clause providing that loss is not insured if due to capture, seizure, confiscation and like actions, whether legal or not , or from such acts as piracy, civil war, rebellion and civil strife.

Free of Particular Average (F.P.A.)
A marine insurance clause providing that partial loss or damage is not insured American conditions (F.P.A.A.C.). Partial loss is not insured unless caused by the vessel being sunk, stranded, burned, on fire, or in collision. English conditions (F.P. A.E.C.). Partial loss not insured unless a result of the vessel being sunk, stranded, burned, on fire, or in collision.

Free Out (F.O.)
Cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free Port
A port which is a foreign trade zone, open to all traders on equal terms; more specifically a port where merchandise may be stored duty-free, pending re-export or sale within that country.

Free Trade Zone
A port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the Customs Authority.

Freight Account
The debit note received from the shipowner for freight due on goods shipped.

Freight Collect Forward
Payable by consignee.

Freight Forwarder
An individual or company , acting on the behalf of a shipper, who arranges all necessary details of shipping and documentation for a manufacturer or exporter, which includes employing the services of a carrier of carriers.

Freight Release
Shipowner's authorisation to captain to give delivery of goods, freight having been paid on them.

Freight Transport Association or Free Trade Agreements

Full Trailer Load.

Gross Weight.

Group of stevedores usually 4 to 5 members with supervisor assigned to a hold or portion of the vessel being loaded or unloaded.

Port of entry into a country or region.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, a multilateral treaty intended to help reduce trade barriers and promote tariff concessions.

General Council of British Shipping

General Cargo Rate. The basic tariff category which was introduced to cover most air cargo now covers only a minority, the remainder being under SCR or class rates.

General Average
When damage to cargo on board a vessel exceeds carrier's insurance, carrier will release cargo only with an acceptance agreement to claim only a general percentage of all the damage sustained.

General Cargo
Any cargo that is not carried in a container or vehicle/machinery that can be loaded/discharged using its own power, e.g. palletised, bagged, bales, bundles, crates, etc.

General Export License
Any of various export licenses covering export commodities for which validated export licenses are not required. No formal application or written authorization is needed to ship exports under a general export license.

General Order
Government contract warehouse for the storage of cargoes left unclaimed for ten working days after availability. Unclaimed cargoes are auctioned publicly after one year.

Gross national product

Devise for connecting a tugmaster to a mafi trailer. It is attached to the tugmasters 'fifth wheel'

Gross Weight
Entire weight of goods, packing, and container, ready for shipment.

A container with cargoes from/for different shippers/receivers, i.e. containing more than one shipper's cargo. Otherwise known as LCL (Less than a container load)

Gross registered tonnage

General Sales Agent acting on behalf of an airline. Usually Broker or Forwarder.

Harmonized Code
An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for customs, statistical and other purposes.

Harmonized Systems
A key provision of the recently signed trade bill, effective Jan. 1, 1989, that establishes international uniformity for product classifications. Most U.S. Trading partners adopted it a year earlier, and it was drafted in Brussels a decade ago with U.S. representatives' input. In essence, it is a new tariff schedule in that it changes methods of rating some items.

The cover of - or opening- in the deck of a vessel, through which cargo is loaded.

Heavy Lift Vessel
Specifically designed to be self sustaining with heavy lift cranes, to handle unusually heavy and/or out-sized cargoes.

Heavy Lifts
Freight too heavy to be handled by regular ship's tackle.

Her Majesty's Customs and Excise

Her Majesty's Customs

Her Majesty's Stationery Office

House Air Waybill
An air waybill issued by a freight consolidator. See Air Waybill.

A central location to which traffic from many cities is directed and from which traffic is fed to other areas.

Hundredweight (cwt.)
A short ton hundredweight = 100 pounds. Long ton hundredweight = 112 pounds.

Term used by steamship lines, agents, or port captains who are appointed to handle all matters in assisting the master of the vessel while in port to obtain bunkering, fresh water, food and supplies, payroll for the crew, doctors appointments, ship repair, etc.

Hague-Visby Rules.

Intermodal Container Transfer Facility, an on-dock facility for moving containers from ship to rail or truck.

Including particular average

International Air Transport Association.

International Civil Aviation Organization. A specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters in Montreal. Its task is to promote general development of civil aviation (e.g. aircraft design and operation, safety procedures, contractual agreements).

International Container Bureau

International Chamber of Commerce

International Commodities Clearing House

International Cocoa Council

Inland Clearance Depot

International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association

International Chamber of Shipping or Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers

Import Duty

Import Duty Report, stipulates the value of an imported good and the amount to be paid as duty. Nigeria only.

Institute of Freight Forwarders.

Container designed to occupy full main deck width of carrying aircraft.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods code

International Monetary Fund

International Maritime Organisation

Import License
A certificate, issued by countries exercising import controls, that permits importation of the articles stated in the license. The issuance of such a permit frequently is connected with the release of foreign exchange needed to pay for the shipment for which the import license has been requested.

A customs program for inland ports that provide for cargo arriving at a seaport to be shipped under a Customs bond to a more conveniently located inland port where the entry documents have been filed. Customs clears the shipment there, and the cargo is trucked to its destination, which normally is close to the inland port.

A codification of terms used in foreign trade contracts that is maintained by the International Chamber of Commerce.

Incremental Cost to Export
The additional costs incurred while manufacturing and preparing a product for export ( e.g., product modifications, special export packaging and export administration costs.) This does not include the costs to manufacture a standard domestic product, export crating and transportation to the foreign market.

Independent Action
A move by whereby a member of a shipping conference elect to depart from the specific service rates set forth by the conference, giving ten calendar days notice of such action. The conference member's new schedule of rate, or rates, officially takes effect no later than ten days after receipt of notice by the conference.

Some steamship lines publish in their schedules the name of a port and the words by inducement in parentheses. This means the vessel will call at the port if there is sufficient amount of profitable cargo available and booked.

Inland Carrier
A transportation line which hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.

International Shipowners' Association

Inspection Certificate
A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in goods condition immediately prior to shipment.

Integrated Carrier
Forwarder which uses own aircraft, whether owned or leased, rather than scheduled airlines.

Intellectual Property
Ownership of the legal rights to possess, use or dispose of products created by human ingenuity, including patents, trademarks and copyrights.

Mutual agreement between airlines to link their route network.

Referring to the capacity to go from ship to train to truck, or the like, the adjective generally refers to containerized shipping or the capacity to handle same.

Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey.

Institute of Export

Import Release Note

Irrevocable Letter of Credit
A letter of credit with a fixed expiration date that carries the irrevocable obligation of the issuing bank to pay the exporter when all of the terms and conditions of the letter of credit have been met.

International Shipping Federation.

International Standards Organization also referred to as the International Organizational for Standardization.

Jettison and washing overboard

Goods from a ship's cargo, or parts of its equipment, that have been thrown overboard to lighten the load in time of danger, or to set a stranded ship adrift.

Joint Venture
A form of business partnership involving joint management and the sharing of risks and profits between enterprises sometimes based in different countries.

Just-In-Time (JIT)
The principle of production and inventory control in which goods arrive when needed for production or use.

Knocked down in carload lots

Knocked down in less than carload lots.

KD Flat
An article taken apart, folded, or telescoped to reduce its bulk at least 66 2/3% below its assembled size.

Toll on vessels entering a port.

Knock Down (KD)
An article taken apart, folded or telescoped in such a manner as to reduce its bulk at least 33 1/3% below its assembled bulk.

Knot (Nautical)
The unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile, or 6,080.20 feet per hour or 1.85 kilometers per hour.

L. & D.
Loss and damage

l.t. or
Long ton (2240 lbs.).

L/C - Letter of Credit
A document issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. Issued as revocable or irrevocable.

Cargo or equipment to which an identifying marker or buoy is fastened, thrown over-board in time of danger to lighten a ship's load. Under maritime law if the goods are later found they must be returned to the owner whose marker is attached; the owner must make a salvage payment.

Lane metre
A method of measuring the space capacity of Ro Ro ships whereby each unit of space (linear metre) is represented by an area of deck 1m in length by 2.5m in width.

Lash Vessel
Designed to load internally, barges specifically designed for the vessel. The concept is to quickly float the barges to the vessel (using tugs or ships wenches) load these barges through the rear of the vessel, then sails. Upon arrival at the foreign port, the reverse happens; Barges are quickly floated away from the vessel and another set of waiting barges quickly are loaded. Designed for quick vessel turn-around. Usually crane-equipped; handles mostly breakbulk cargo.

Lighter aboard ship: This technique for sea transport of cargoes uses barges floated into specially designed vessels. One of our competitors, Baco Line employs such vessels on the Europe/Africa trade. This technique enables low drafted barges to access shallow ports ie some of those in the Niger delta including Onne and Warri.

To hold goods in position by the use of, for example, wires, ropes, chains, or straps.

Abbreviation for laydays cancelling periods during which a shipowner must tender notice that a ship has arrived at the port of loading and is ready to load cargo.

Time given by the shipowner to allow a chartered vessel to load and/or discharge cargo.

Less than a container load: A container with cargoes from/for different shippers/receivers, i.e. containing more than one shipper's cargo.

Legal Weight
The weight of the goods plus any immediate wrappings which are sold along with the goods: e.g., the weight of a tin can as well as its contents. (See Gross Weight).

Less than Truck Load (LTL)
Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume or truckload minimum weight.

Letter of Credit - payment by sight draft
The exporter receives guaranteed payment from the confirming bank in the U.S. upon presentation of the sight draft and documents required by the letter of credit.

Letter of Credit
A document issued by a bank at a buyer's request honoring debt obligations to the seller upon receipt of the document.

Letter of Indemnity

Local import control

London International Financial Futures Exchange

An open or covered barge equipped with a crane and towed by a tugboat. Used mostly in harbors and inland waterways.

The cost of loading or unloading a vessel by means of barges alongside.

Liner in, liner out or full liner terms: Qualification to a freight rate which signifies that it consists of the ocean carriage and the cost of cargo handling at the loading and discharging ports (to ship's rail) according to the custom of a particular set of ports.

Linear metre
Method of measuring volume of cargo on Ro Ro vessels, in which the measurement is an estimate of the length of the cargo laid end to end. (See lane metre.)

The word "liner" is derived from the term "line traffic" which denotes operation along definite routes on the basis of definite, fixed schedules; a liner thus is a vessel that engages in this kind of transportation, which generally involves the haulage of general cargo as distinct from bulk cargo.

The finalization of a customs entry.

Common farm animals.

Lkg. & Bkg.
Leakage and breakage.

The acronym meaning "lift-on,lift-off," denoting the method by which argo is loaded onto and discharged from an ocean vessel, which in this case is by the use of a crane.

Length over all: Vessel length.

Load Factor
Capacity sold as against capacity available, expressed as a percentage.


Less than truckload

Mercantile marine

Mate's Receipt

Metric Ton (2204 lbs.)

M/V or M.V.
Motor vessel

A generic term for a wheeled trailer used for carrying cargo, also properly known as a roll trailer. It may remain on board throughout ocean passage or be used as a ‘slave' trailer to transport cargo to and from the vessel once on quay.

A list of the goods being transported by a carrier.

Marine Insurance
An insurance which will compensate the owner of goods transported overseas in the event of loss which cannot be legally recovered from the carrier.

Maritime Administration (MARAD)
A US government agency, while not actively involved in vessel operation, administers laws for maintenance of merchant marine for the purposes of defense and commerce.

As used on containers in foreign trade, a symbol or initials shown together with the port of importation and the final destination, if different. Example: A.G. y Cia., Bogota via Barranquilla. Marks are registered at appropriate customs houses; they also appear on bills of lading and invoices. In domestic trade, it is common to mark containers with the name and address of the recipient, but this is rarely done in foreign trade.

Every article of foreign origin, or its container, imported into the United States shall be permanently marked in a conspicuous place in a manner which would indicate to the ultimate purchaser the English name of the country of origin of the article.

Mate's Receipt
Receipt of cargo by the vessel, signed by the mate (similar to dock receipt).

Measurement Ton
The measurement ton (also known as the cargo ton or freight ton) is a space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. The cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet or 1 cubic meter it occupies.

One of the predatory massive shipping lines that compete on the largely saturated east/west trades.

MFN (Most Favored Nation)
Designation for countries which receive preferential tariff rates. This is no longer the best tariff structure available.

Min. B/L
Minimum bill of lading


Minimum weight factor

Not elsewhere mentioned (English)

Not elsewhere specified

Not otherwise enumerated

Not otherwise herein provided

Not more specifically described

Not otherwise indicated by number; Not otherwise indicated by name.

Not otherwise specified

Net tons

National Carrier
A flag carrier owned or controlled by the state.

Nested Solid
Three of more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each article will not project above the next lower article by more than 1/4 inch.

Three or more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each article will not project above the next lower article by more than 33 1/3% of its height.

Net Terms
Free of charters' commission

Net Weight
(Actual Net Weight) Weight of goods alone without any immediate wrappings; e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.

National Maritime Board

National Motor Freight Classification

No Objection Certificate
Document provided by scheduled or national airlines of many countries declaring no objection to a proposed charter flight operated by another airline. Often demanded by government authorities before they grant permission for a charter flight to take place.

No Objection Fee
Sum of money paid by a charter airline normally to a scheduled airline in order that it waives its right of objection to its government, thus allowing a charter to take place. Tantamount to a bribe. The amount is usually a fixed percentage of the gross cost of a charter. Common practice in the Middle East and Africa.

Non-Scheduled Flight
See scheduled flight.

Non-Tariff Barriers (NTB)
Economic, political, administrative or legal impediments to trade other than duties, taxes and import quotas

Non-Vessel Operation Common Carrier (NVOCC)
An F.M.C. registered cargo consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting business and arranging for or performing containerization functions at the port. These carriers issue their own bill of lading referred to as a house bill of lading.

National Ports Council / Nigerian Ports Charge (Carriers surcharge given extra costs imposed by ports authority)

Net registered tonnage

Non vessel owning common carrier

O. & R.
Ocean and Rail

Outside diameter

O.R. Det.
Owner's risk of deterioration

Owner's risk or breakage

Owner's risk of fire or freezing

Owner's risk of leakage

Owner's risk of becoming wet

O.S. & D.
Over, short and damage

Order notify; own name

Order of

Owner's risk

Oil bulk ore: A vessel capable of carrying both dry and liquid bulk cargoes.

Ocean Bill of Lading
A receipt for cargo in transit, and a contract between the exporter and an ocean carrier for transportation and delivery of goods to a specified party at a specified foreign destination. Issued after the vessel has sailed and the cargo has been entered in the ship's manifest.

An acronym commonly used for the term "operating differential subsidy," which is a payment to an American-flag carrier by the federal government to offset the difference in operating costs between US and foreign vessels.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development

Organisation for European Economic Co-operation

Describes an airline that sells in a market to which it does not operate. An Off-Line carrier will use another operator to link with its network.

Office of Fair Trading

OOG - Out of gauge/profile
When cargo loaded is not within the dimensions of an ISO pontoon/stackmaster on which it is placed and protrudes from the sides or is too high.

Open Account
A high-risk trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment.

Open Policy
A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; i.e., it provides protection for all an exporter's shipments afloat or in transit within a specified geographical trade area for an unlimited period of time, until the policy is cancelled by the insured or by the insurance company. It is "open" because the goods that are shipped are also detailed at that time. This usually is shown in a document called a marine insurance certificate.

Open top container
Container with a removable fabric roof which enables heavy/bulk cargo to be loaded into the container by crane/elevator.

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM accounts)
Customers who incorporate the exporter's product into their own merchandise for resale under their own brand names.

Cargo discharged but not on the manifest, generally by accident.

R. & C.
Rail and Canal

r. & c.c.
Riots and civil commotions

r.c.c. & s.
Riots, civil commotions and strikes


Reach Stacker
A special container handling truck that can stack containers and reach behind two rows of containers.

A deduction taken from a set payment or charge. As a rebate is given after payment of the full amount has been made, it differs from a discount which is deducted in advance of the payment. In foreign trade, a full or partial rebate may be given on import duties paid on goods which are later re-exported.

A practice by which governments extend similar concessions to one another.

Red Clause Letter of Credit
A letter of credit that allows the exporter to receive a percentage of the face value of the letter of credit in advance of shipment. This enables the exporter to purchase inventory and pay other costs associated with producing and preparing the export order.

Registered Excise Shippers and Dealers

Refrigerated container that is fitted with a refrigerated unit for the carriage of cargoes that have to be frozen or chilled.

Refrigerating; Refrigeration

Registered Tonnage

Action taken by a country to restrain its imports from another country that has increased a tariff or imposed other measures that adversely affects the firsts country's exports.

Removal Note

A generic term for a wheeled trailer used for carrying cargo, also known as a mafi. It may remain on board throughout ocean passage or be used as a ‘slave' trailer to transport cargo to and from the vessel once on quay.It has an underlayer with a steel chassis and equipped with solid rubber tyres. It is attached to a tugmaster with a gooseneck.

Direct drive on/drive off wheeled vehicles on specially-designed ocean-going vessels.

an established air passage, from point of departure to terminating station.

a charge on charter flights levied by some governments before traffic rights are granted. Sometimes called a "no objection fee." Usually a fixed proportion of a total charter value.

Through bill of lading

Temporary Import Entry.

Tally Sheet
List of cargo, incoming and outgoing, checked by Tally clerk on dock.

Tank container
A container suitable for carrying liquids or powder.

Tare Weight
The weight of the container and/or packing materials only - excluding the weight of the goods inside the container.

The actual weight of the container only, without the goods.

A general term for any listing of rates, charges, etc. the tariffs most frequently encountered in foreign trade are: tariffs of the international transportation companies operating on sea, on land, and in the air; tariffs of the international cable, radio, and telephone companies; and the customs tariffs of the various countries, which list goods that are duty free and those subject to import duty, giving the rate of duty in each case. There are various classes of customs duties.

Total distribution costs

Tons deadweight

Temperature Controlled Cargo
Any cargo requiring carriage under controlled temperature.

A receiving point ie a freight station or a container yard.

Twenty foot equivalent.

Third Freedom Right
Where cargo is carried by an airline, from the country in which it is based, to a foreign country.

Time charter
The hiring of a ship from a shipowner for a period of time.

Time Draft
A draft that matures in a certain number of days, either from acceptance or date of the draft.

Title, Passing
The passing of title to exported goods is determined in large measure by the selling terms. For example, if an exporter sells goods c.i.f he may be presumed to pass ownership and tender of documents. However, he may ship on a bill of lading drawn to his own order, to prevent the buyer from gaining possession of the goods until the draft is paid or accepted. In this case he retains a security title to the goods; that is, a title for security purposes only, until the financial arrangement is carried out. Caution: depending on the laws of the buyer's country, you may not be able to force passage of title without payment having been received or the buyer having accepted delivery of the goods or a clear understanding by the buyer being understood and accepted.


Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be weight ton or a measurement ton.

Indicates the carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions and passengers which a vessel can carry.

The weight of the volume of water which the fully loaded ship displaces.

Measure of airline freight capacity.

Indicates the cubical contents or burden of a vessel in tons of 100 cubic feet. The space within a vessel in units of 100 cubic feet.

Rolltrailers and cassettes are secured with webbing. One end is attached to the ceiling, the other to the underlayer

A carrier's system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origin to destination.

A term used to define a geographic area or specific route served by carriers.

Traffic Conferences
Rate-fixing machinery operated by IATA.

A tramp is a vessel that does not operate along a definite route on a fixed schedule, but calls at any port where cargo is available.

Transferable Letter of Credit
A letter of credit that allows all or a portion of the proceeds to be transferred from the original beneficiary to one or more additional beneficiaries.

Transport Index
The number expressing the maximum radiation level in a package of ULD.

The transfer of a shipment from one carrier to another in international trade, most frequently from one ship to another. In as much as the unloading and reloading of delicate merchandise is likely to cause damage, transshipments are avoided whenever possible.

Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.

Trust Receipt
Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer for manufacturing or sales purposes in which the bank retains title to the merchandise.

Tariff trade code

A tractor - often a four wheel drive - with a hydraulic trailer connection known as a ‘fifth wheel' used to tow cargo on and off the vessels.

Trader unique reference number

A screw threaded device for tightening rods and chains and wire lashings

Turnkey Project
Capital construction projects in which the supplier (contractor) designs and builds the physical plant, trains the local personnel on how to manage and operate the facility and presents the buyer with a self-sustaining project (all the buyer has to do is "turn the Key").

Device for locking a container to the deck or to another container above or below. The locking var is fitted to the corner casting of the container and twisted with a handle.

Another term for the forks of a forklift truck.

Under deck

Central African Customs and Economic Union

Union Douance et Economique d'Afrique Occidentale

United Nations

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

The United Nations Conference on Trade & Development

Valuation Charges
Transportation charges assessed shippers who declare a value of goods higher than value of carrier's' limits of liability.

VAT (Value-Added Tax)
A sales or consumption tax which the end user pays. Typically, this is a "hidden"; tax, added to the list price of the goods in question.


An invoice properly validated by the Minister of Trade in regard to quota entries.

Volume Weight
Used when calculating air freight when the size of the carton is greater than the average weight, calculated by multiplying the length times the width times the height and dividing by 166.

W. & I
Weighing and Inspection

With Average

Weight guaranteed

With Particular Average

War Risk

Weight and/or measurement

Warehouse receipt

War Risk Insurance
Insurance issued by marine underwriters against war-like operations specifically described in the policy. In former times, war risk insurance was taken out only in times of war, but currently many exporter cover most of their shipments with war risk insurance as a protection against losses from derelict torpedoes and floating mines placed during former wars, and also as a safeguard against unforeseen warlike developments. In the United states, war risk insurance is written in a separate policy from the ordinary marine insurance; it is desirable to take out both policies with the same underwriter in order to avoid the ill effects of a possible dispute between underwriters as to the cause (marine peril or war peril) of a given loss.

War Risk
The possible aggressive actions against a ship and its cargo by a belligerent government. This risk can be insured by a marine policy with a risk clause.

Warehouse Receipt
A receipt of commodities deposited in a warehouse, identifying the commodities deposited. It is non-negotiable if permitting delivery only to a specified person or firm, but it is negotiable if made out to the order of a person or firm or to a bearer. Endorsement (without endorsement if made out to bearer) and delivery of a negotiable warehouse receipt serves to transfer the property covered by the receipt serves to transfer the property covered by the receipt. Warehouse receipts are common documents in international banking.

A clause in marine insurance policy whereby the underwriter agrees to cover the goods while in transit between the initial point of shipment and the point of destination, with certain limitations, and also subject to the law of insurable interest. When it was first introduced, the warehouse-to-warehouse clause was extremely important, but now its importance is diminished by the marine extension clauses, which override its provisions.

Web Lashing
Webbing made of artificial fibre which is tightened and locked with a winch.

Weight Load Factor
Payload achieved as against available, expressed as a percentage. Cargo is frequently limited by volume rather than weight; load factors of 100% are rarely achieved.

Weight, Legal
Net weight of goods, plus inside packing.

Gross - The weight of the goods including packing, wrappers, or containers, internal and external. The total weight as shipped.
Net - The weight of the goods themselves without the inclusion of any wrapper.
Tare - The weight of the packaging or container.
Weight/Measurement Ton - In many cases, a rate is shown per weight/measurement ton, carrier's option. This means that the rate will be assessed on either a weight ton or measurement ton basis, whichever will yield the carrier the greater revenue. As example, the rate may be quoted on the basis of 2,240 pounds or 40 cubic feet or of 1 metric ton or 1 cubic meter.
Weight Ton - There are three types of weight ton; the short ton, weighing 2,000 pounds; the long ton, weighing 2,240 pounds; and the metric ton weight 2,204.68 pounds. The last is frequently quoted for cargo being exported from Europe.

A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against the cargo or a steamship company for use of the pier or dock.

With Average
A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a stated percentage.

With Particular Average (W.P.A.)
An insurance term meaning that partial loss or damage of goods is insured. Generally must be caused by sea water. Many have a minimum percentage of damage before payment. May be extended to cover loss by theft, pilferage, delivery, leakage, and breakage.

Without Reserve
A term indicating shipper's agent or representative is empowered to make definitive decisions and adjustments abroad without approval of the group or individual represented. See advisory capacity.

World Bank
International bank for reconstruction and development.

X Heavy
Extra Heavy

X Strong
Extra strong

XX Heavy
Double extra heavy

XX Strong
Double extra strong